The image below is a schematic move diagram of a typical oil refinery depicting varied unit processes and the move of intermediate products between the inlet crude oil feedstock and the final products. The diagram depicts solely one of many a whole lot of various configurations. It does not embody any of the usual services providing utilities equivalent to steam, cooling water, and electric energy as well as storage tanks for crude oil feedstock and for intermediate merchandise and finish products.
The image beneath is a schematic block move diagram of a typical natural gasoline processing plant. It exhibits various unit processes changing uncooked natural gasoline into gasoline pipelined to end customers.
The block circulate diagram additionally shows how processing of the raw pure gasoline yields byproduct sulfur, byproduct ethane, and pure fuel liquids (NGL) propane, butanes and natural gasoline (denoted as pentanes +).[Three][four]
Sugarcane is traditionally refined into sugar in two levels. In the first stage, uncooked sugar is produced by the milling of freshly harvested sugarcane. In a sugar mill, sugarcane is washed, chopped, and shredded by revolving knives. The shredded cane is mixed with water and crushed. The juices (containing 10-15 % sucrose) are collected and blended with lime to adjust pH to 7, to forestall decay into glucose and fructose and precipitate impurities. The lime and other suspended solids are settled out, and the clarified juice is concentrated in a multiple-impact evaporator to make a syrup with about 60 weight % sucrose. The syrup is additional concentrated below vacuum until it becomes supersaturated, and then seeded with crystalline sugar. Upon cooling, sugar crystallizes out of the syrup. Centrifuginging then separates the sugar from the remaining liquid (molasses). Raw sugar has a yellow to brown coloration. To produce a white sugar, sulfur dioxide is bubbled by means of the cane juice before evaporation so as to bleach coloration-forming impurities into colourless ones. Sugar bleached white by this means is called mill white, plantation white, and crystal sugar. It is the form of sugar most often consumed in the sugarcane-producing countries.
The second stage is often executed in heavy sugar-consuming regions such as North America, Europe, and Japan. In the second stage, white sugar is produced that is greater than 99 percent pure sucrose. In such refineries, raw sugar is further purified. It’s first blended with heavy syrup and centrifuged to clean away the outer coating of the raw sugar crystals, which is less pure than the crystal inside. The remaining sugar is then dissolved to make a syrup (about 70 percent by weight solids), which is clarified by the addition of phosphoric acid and calcium hydroxide that combine to precipitate calcium phosphate. The calcium phosphate particles entrap some impurities and absorb others, after which float to the highest of the tank, the place they are skimmed off.
After any remaining solids are filtered out, the clarified syrup is decolorized by filtration by means of a bed of activated carbon. The purified syrup is then concentrated to supersaturation and repeatedly crystallized beneath vacuum to produce white refined sugar. As in a sugar mill, the sugar crystals are separated from the molasses by centrifuging. To provide granulated sugar, wherein the individual sugar grains don’t clump collectively, sugar have to be dried. Drying is completed first by drying the sugar in a sizzling rotary dryer, and then by blowing cool air by it for several days.